Must Be Resisted
- The government or authority of
a tyrant; a country governed by an absolute ruler; hence, arbitrary or
despotic exercise of power; exercise of power over subjects and others with
a rigor not authorized by law or justice, or not requisite for the purposes
- Cruel government or
- To stand against; to
withstand; to obstruct.
- To strive against; to endeavor
to counteract, defeat, or frustrate; to act in opposition to; to oppose.
- To counteract, as a force, by
inertia or reaction.
- To make opposition.
IX - The
enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
X - The powers
not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people.
of Confederation II - Each state retains its sovereignty,
freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right,
which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United
States, in Congress assembled.
of Confederation III
- The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of
friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security
of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding
themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or
attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion,
sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.
- When in the
Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the
separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of
Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of
mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.
- We hold
these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among
Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these
ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation
on such principles and organizing its powers in such form,
as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments
long established should not be changed for light and
transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown,
that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are
sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms
to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of
abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object
evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it
is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
Government, and to provide new Guards for their future
has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such
is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their
former Systems of Government.
history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of
repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct
object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these
prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good.
has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate
and pressing importance, unless suspended in their
operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when
so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to
has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of
large districts of people, unless those people would
relinquish the right of Representation in the
Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable
to tyrants only.
has called together legislative bodies at places
unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository
of their public Records, for the sole purpose of
fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for
opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights
of the people.
has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to
cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative
powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the
People at large for their exercise; the State remaining
in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion
from without, and convulsions within.
has endeavored to prevent the population of these
States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for
Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to
encourage their migrations hither, and raising the
conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by
refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary
has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the
tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of
has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither
swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out
has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies
without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of
and superior to the Civil power.
has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our
laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended
Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment
for any Murders which they should commit on the
Inhabitants of these States:
cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial
transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for
abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary
government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to
render it at once an example and fit instrument for
introducing the same absolute rule into these
taking away our Charters, abolishing our most
valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms
of our Governments:
suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring
themselves invested with power to legislate for us
in all cases whatsoever.
has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of
his Protection and waging War against us.
has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our
towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign
Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation
and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty
& perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous
ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized
has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the
high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become
the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to
fall themselves by their Hands.
has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored
to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the
merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare,
is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and
- In every
stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the
most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered
only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked
by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler
of a free people.
- Nor have We
been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have
warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature
to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and
magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common
kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably
interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been
deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must,
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our
Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind,
Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America,
in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge
of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the
Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies,
solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are,
and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they
are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that
all political connection between them and the State of Great
Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free
and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War,
conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to
do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of
right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm
reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually
pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred
- Introduction and
- Every day, we strive
to fulfill Lincoln’s vision: a country united and free, in which all
people are guaranteed equal rights and the opportunity to pursue their
dreams. His legacy goes beyond the borders of America. It can be seen in
free governments allover the world.
successors have been united by a common purpose – defending freedom at
home and promoting it abroad. Today, the Republican Party gathers to
re-nominate a man who carries on the best traditions of our Party by
carrying the banner of freedom.
Winning the War on
- A Comprehensive
Strategy to Win the War on Terror, Promote Peace, and Build a Better
- Republicans support
President Bush's steadfast commitment to the goal of a lasting,
democratic peace, in which all nations are free from the threat of
sudden terror. We affirm the three commitments of the President's
strategy for peace:
- Three years ago,
al Qaeda's secure home base was in Afghanistan, a country ruled by
the Taliban, one of the most backward and brutal regimes of modern
Afghanistan is a world away from the nightmare of the Taliban.
Twenty- eight million people are free. That country has a good and
just president. Boys and girls are being educated. Women are
respected. Many refugees have returned home to rebuild their
country, and a presidential election is scheduled for this fall. The
terror camps are closed and the Afghan government is helping us to
hunt the Taliban and terrorists in remote regions. Today, because we
acted to liberate Afghanistan, a threat has been removed, and the
American people are safer.
- Three years ago,
Pakistan was one of the few countries in the world that recognized
the Taliban regime. Al Qaeda was active and recruiting in Pakistan.
- Today, because
we are working with Pakistani leaders, Pakistan is an ally in the
War on Terror, and the American people are safer.
- Three years ago,
terrorists were well-established in Saudi Arabia. Inside that
country, fundraisers and other facilitators gave al Qaeda financial
and logistical help with little scrutiny or opposition.
- Today, because
Saudi Arabia has seen the danger and has joined the War on Terror,
the American people are safer.
- Three years ago,
the ruler of Iraq was a sworn enemy of America who provided safe
haven for terrorists, used weapons of mass destruction, and turned
his nation into a prison.
- Today, because
America and our coalition helped to end the violent regime of Saddam
Hussein, and because we are helping to raise a peaceful democracy in
its place, 25 million Iraqis are free and the American people are
- Three years ago,
the nation of Libya, a longtime supporter of terror, was spending
millions to acquire chemical and nuclear weapons.
- Today, because the
Libyan government saw the seriousness of the civilized world, and
correctly judged its own interests, the American people are safer.
- Consolidating Gains in the
War on Terror
- In Afghanistan
and Iraq, our enemies have seen the results of what civilized
nations can, and will, do against regimes that harbor, support, and
use terrorism to achieve their political goals. Republicans believe
that America and the world must keep our commitments to the people
of those countries, who are building the world's newest democracies
and counting on the world to help. Delivering these nations from
tyranny has required sacrifice and loss. We must honor that
sacrifice by finishing the great work we have begun.
appreciate the military, financial, and technical assistance
provided by the dozens of nations contributing to the reconstruction
of Afghanistan and Iraq.
- As Republicans,
we do not equivocate, as others have done, about whether America
should have gone to war in Iraq. The best intelligence available at
the time indicated that Saddam Hussein was a threat.
- We are ever
mindful that American troops remain on the ground in Iraq, working
steadfastly to help the Iraqi people achieve stability and
democracy. We therefore welcome declarations from responsible
political leaders of both parties that our nation will persevere in
our mission there, not cut and run.
- We condemn
inconsistent, ambiguous, and politically expedient statements on
that point. To the extent such wavering encourages our adversaries
to fight harder, our men and women in uniform suffer the
consequences. Their mission is difficult enough. Uncertainty about
America's commitment to that mission makes it immeasurably more
- In Iraq, America
is serving the cause of liberty, peace, and our own security.
America accepted a difficult task in Iraq. We know that for all
these reasons, we will finish that task.
- Halting the
Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
- Republicans share
President Bush's understanding that in an age in which the enemies
of civilization openly and actively seek the world's most
destructive technologies, the United States cannot remain idle while
dangers gather. We therefore believe that to forestall or prevent
hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States must, if
necessary, act preemptively.
Alliances to Win the War on Terror, Promote Peace, and Build a Better
recognize that our progress in the War on Terror has been achieved
with the help of other responsible nations.
welcome the enlargement of NATO, which has strengthened history's
most successful Alliance. The Atlantic Alliance has widened the
circle of its friends, while also creating a new chapter in our
relationship with Russia.
believe that just as our nation relies on our men and women in
uniform to fight and win the War on Terror, we also depend on
America's diplomats, who serve in the vanguard of our present
struggle. Defeating terrorism requires the United States to:
establish stable and democratic governments in nations such as
Afghanistan and Iraq that once supported terrorism;
front-line states and coalition partners;
counterterrorism, intelligence, and law enforcement cooperation
with allies and friends; and
promote democracy, especially in the Broader Middle East.
- We salute their
strong record of achievement during this consequential era of
American foreign policy and support the efforts of President Bush
and the Republican Congress to provide the Department of State
funding sufficient to ensure the continued success of American
- Neighborhood of the
believe that sound American foreign policy starts in our own
neighborhood. Family and faith, culture and commerce, are enduring
bonds among all the peoples of the Americas. Our nation's future is
fundamentally linked to our neighbors in the Western Hemisphere.
Republicans share President Bush's vision of the Americas as a fully
democratic hemisphere, working together to achieve representative
democracy, security, and market-based development. We also applaud
his proven track record in advancing trade liberalization in the
Americas in order to promote economic development and democratic
- We praise
President Bush's strong record of serious and sustained attention to
the American neighborhood and coalition-building with countries such
as Mexico, Canada, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia that share our
applaud Canada's contributions to the War on Terror, not only as a
partner in the Americas but as a steadfast transatlantic ally,
including in deployments during Operation Enduring Freedom and in
the current NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. We also appreciate
the continuing participation of El Salvador in the multinational
force in Iraq, as well as the past contributions of the Dominican
Republic and Honduras in support of the goal of stability and
democracy for the Iraqi people.
- Our Party
believes that the United States must continue to support the
democracies of South America with strong economic and security
- The Castro
regime continues to pursue policies of Marxist-Leninist
dictatorship, police state tactics, and total economic control.
Because of these policies, the Castro regime remains hostile to
America's interests and values.
- As Republicans,
we support President Bush's principled position that the current
embargo on trade with, and restrictions on travel to, Cuba must
remain in place as along as the Cuban government refuses to hold
free and fair elections, ease its stranglehold on private
enterprise, and allow the Cuban people to organize, assemble, and
speak freely. Republicans understand that the Castro regime will not
change by its own choice. But Cuba must change. That is why we
support President Bush's decision to provide additional resources
activities in Cuba, support for the family members of the
political opposition, and support for efforts to help youth,
women, and Afro-Cubans take their rightful place in the
airborne broadcasts to Cuba and the purchase of a dedicated
airborne platform for the transmission of Radio and Television
Martí into Cuba; and
diplomacy efforts to disseminate information abroad about
Castro's record of abusing human rights, harboring terrorists,
committing espionage against other countries, and fomenting
subversion of democratically elected governments in Latin
applaud the work of the President's Commission for Assistance to a
Free Cuba, which identified measures to help the Cuban people bring
to an end the Castro dictatorship and provided a plan for agile,
effective, and decisive assistance to the people of Cuba when they
have finally achieved freedom and democracy. We support the
Commission's recommendations, which include:
resources and legitimacy to the Castro regime by eliminating
abuses of educational travel programs;
the regime's manipulation of our humanitarian policies by
limiting recipients of remittances and gift parcels to immediate
family members; and
family visits to Cuba to immediate family.
applaud the strong support President Bush has demonstrated for the
people of Haiti and agree that it is essential that Haiti have a
hopeful future. We support the President's leadership of
multilateral efforts to bring order and stability to Haiti and
assist the Haitian people in achieving a democratic and
- Under the
leadership of President Bush and the Republican Congress, our nation
is standing together with leaders in Africa against the tragic
violence of civil war and against the merciless terrorists who
threaten every nation.
- Yet those
institutions and values are threatened in some parts of Africa by
terrorism, chaos, and civil war. To extend liberty in Africa, we
must help African leaders who seek to achieve security and peace on
believe that together with our allies and friends, America must help
strengthen Africa's fragile states, help build indigenous capability
to secure porous borders, and help build up the law enforcement and
intelligence infrastructures to deny havens for terrorists.
- Working in
concert with allies, friends, and international institutions, the
Bush Administration has helped achieve progress toward resolving
conflicts in Liberia, Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo,
Sierra Leone, and Sudan.
- We commend the
efforts of the President and the Republican Congress to help the
people of Darfur, in western Sudan.
deplore the Government of Zimbabwe's refusal to adhere to the rule
of law. The Bush Administration has rightly condemned the Government
of Zimbabwe's assaults against human rights. We support the
President's decision to suspend non- humanitarian aid and impose
targeted sanctions on the Zimbabwean regime and its supporters.
- We will not
allow terrorists to threaten African peoples, or to use Africa as a
base to threaten the world.
- Across the Pacific
- North Korea lies
outside of the international system. Americans have shed their blood
to stop North Korean aggression before and remain prepared to resist
- If China
violates these principles and attacks Taiwan, then the United States
will respond appropriately in accordance with the Taiwan Relations
Act. America will help Taiwan defend itself.
- The second is
continued retribution by the government of Vietnam against its
ethnic minorities and others who fought alongside our forces there.
The United States owes those individuals a debt of honor and will
not be blind to their suffering.
- The Republican
Party is committed to democracy in Burma, and to Nobel Laureate Aung
San Suu Kyi and other democratic leaders whose election in 1990 was
brutally suppressed and who have been arrested and imprisoned for
their belief in freedom and democracy. Republicans share with her
the view that the basic principles of human freedom and dignity are
universal. We are committed to working with our allies in Europe and
Asia to maintain a firm and resolute opposition to the military
junta in Rangoon.
applaud President Bush for the visionary agenda he set forth at the
beginning of his Administration: the establishment of a Europe
whole, free, and at peace. That agenda is in the finest tradition of
America's historical commitment to the freedom and security of
Europe. It builds on the legacy of the courageous and resolute
leadership of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, through
which the Cold War was won.
- We hail the
President's success in achieving unprecedented cooperation with
Europe - at NATO, through the European Union, and with individual
nations - in combating terrorism and proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction, building peace and democracy in Afghanistan and
Iraq, and advancing the cause of freedom, democracy, and opportunity
throughout the broader Middle East and North Africa.
recognize and applaud the fact that especially since September 11,
2001, some of America's strongest allies and friends have been the
democracies of Central and Eastern Europe - many of whom inspired
the world during the Cold War by assaulting the Iron Curtain again
and again until it finally crashed down forever.
- Republicans hail
the participation in the multinational coalition in Iraq of NATO
members that joined the Alliance in 1999 and 2004 - Poland, Hungary,
the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,
and Slovakia - as well as the contributions of Ukraine, Georgia,
Moldova, Albania, and Macedonia. Through their dedication to the
cause of security and freedom in Iraq, these nations - together with
the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark, Portugal, and
Norway - are demonstrating their commitment to the values shared by
members of the transatlantic community. We also applaud the
contribution of forces in Iraq by Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan and
support strengthening NATO's partnerships with these nations and
their neighbors in the Caucasus and Central Asia.
- The Broader Middle
East and North Africa
- We know that in
this struggle against terrorism free nations have strong allies, of
every faith, including millions of people in the Middle East who
want to live in freedom. As Republicans, we share the President's
conviction that if that region grows in democracy, prosperity, and
hope, the terrorist movement will lose its sponsors, lose its
recruits, and lose the festering grievances that keep terrorists in
- We believe that
terror attacks against Israelis are part of the same evil as the
September 11, 2001, attacks against America. We recognize Israel's
right to defend itself in the face of homicide bombings and other
attacks against the people of Israel.
- If Palestinians
embrace democracy and the rule of law, confront corruption, and
firmly reject terror, they can count on American support for the
creation of a Palestinian state.
- In Iran, we
continue to see a government that represses its people, pursues
weapons of mass destruction, and supports terror. We also see
Iranian citizens risking intimidation and death as they speak out
for liberty, human rights, and democracy. The Iranian people have a
right to choose their own government and determine their own
destiny. We also support the President's practice of forming policy
toward Iran based on Iranian actions, not words, and applaud his
Administration's progress in convincing America's friends and
allies, most importantly in Europe, to join us in a firm, common
approach to ending Iran's nuclear weapons programs.
- Supporting Judges
Who Uphold the Law
- In the federal
courts, scores of judges with activist backgrounds in the hard-left
now have lifetime tenure. Recent events have made it clear that
these judges threaten America's dearest institutions and our very
way of life. . In some states, activist judges are redefining the
institution of marriage. The Pledge of Allegiance has already been
invalidated by the courts once, and the Supreme Court's ruling has
left the Pledge in danger of being struck down again - not because
the American people have rejected it and the values that it
embodies, but because a handful of activist judges threaten to
overturn commonsense and tradition. And while the vast majority of
Americans support a ban on partial birth abortion, this brutal and
violent practice will likely continue by judicial fiat. We believe
that the self-proclaimed supremacy of these judicial activists is
antithetical to the democratic ideals on which our nation was
- The sound
principle of judicial review has turned into an intolerable
presumption of judicial supremacy. A Republican Congress, working
with a Republican president, will restore the separation of powers
and re-establish a government of law. There are different ways to
achieve that goal, such as using Article III of the Constitution to
limit federal court jurisdiction; for example, in instances where
judges are abusing their power by banning the use of "under
God" in the Pledge of Allegiance or prohibiting depictions of
the Ten Commandments, and potential actions invalidating the Defense
of Marriage Act (DOMA). Additionally, we condemn judicial activists
and their unwarranted and unconstitutional restrictions on the free
exercise of religion in the public square.
- Summary and Call to
- We fight important
battles and champion freedom because by expanding liberty, we make our
nation more secure.
- As the Party of
Lincoln, we stand for freedom.
- We know that freedom
is not America's gift to the world; freedom is the Almighty's gift to
every man, woman, and child in the world. And we stand for a hopeful
tomorrow that will come from total and complete victory in the War on
- These are values
worthy of a great nation. And they are values worth fighting for. That
is exactly what President George W. Bush continues to do. He is
protecting us from danger by being prepared, strong, and steadfast.
Vigilance is never easy. But it is always essential, now more than ever.
Republican Resistance of Tyranny Values
Administrative Policy Initiatives
Republican Sponsored Legislature
— Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996
(Helms-Burton Act), Pub.L. 104-114, 110 Stat. 785
31, 1998 — Iraq Liberation Act, Pub.L. 105-338, 112 Stat. 3178
— Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq, Pub.L. 107-243,
116 Stat. 1497
12, 2003 — Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act,
Pub.L. 108-175, 117 Stat. 2481
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